THE NEXUS OF WELFARE PROGRAMS AND JOB PERFORMANCE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Motivation, or the desire to perform the job, is considered as a crucial aspect of teachers' work attitudes. According to Imam (2022), one of the primary aims of educational administration nowadays is the efficient utilization of teachers in schools to fulfill educational goals. This implies that there is an emphasis on the performance of teachers and result-oriented schools. Thus, Imam (2022) emphasized the necessity for effective human resource management techniques aimed at fostering a good attitude toward the workplace and maximizing performance.
The elementary and secondary public schools in Nigeria should offer every student with a high-quality education. This requires a sufficient number of qualified persons who are willing and able to act as educators. An organization such as the school requires instructors who actively contribute to the achievement of organizational objectives. However, willingness to labor relies on how effectively individual instructors' needs are satisfied (Isa, 2022).
As a result of their effect on the educational system, teachers at all educational levels are crucial to the general growth of any nation. Education is the key to any nation's civilisation and modernisation. However, teachers hold the key to this door by performing their basic responsibilities in schools. Nyerere (2022) emphasized this reality when he remarked that "teachers, more than any other group, control the attitudes of society and mold the thoughts and ambitions of the nation."
Consequently, the quality of any educational system is highly dependent on the quality of the instructors in terms of incentive or welfare services, which is supposed to develop a competent and devoted staff. Corroborating this, Ejiogu (2022) observed that one of the primary objectives of people management in any business is the generation of contented employees who would remain pleased on the job and offer their best efforts toward attaining the organization's objectives with minimal effort.
Personnel welfare services in education are a scenario in which a combination of important aspects and variables result in the satisfaction of the individual and collective needs of secondary school teaching and non-teaching staff. The fulfillment of these fundamental requirements also requires a decent level of dedication. These staff welfare benefits include monetary compensation and advancement, free or subsidized medical care, official housing or housing loans, regular salary increases and payments, and free or subsidized transportation or vehicle loans (Ozor, 2022).
Moreover, the wellbeing of teachers should be a primary consideration for any forward-thinking educational program. In accordance with this, the National Policy on Education (F.G.N., 2022) states that teacher education will continue to get a significant amount of attention in all educational planning since "no education system can rise beyond the quality of its instructors." This policy went on to emphasize that the objective of teacher education should be to: a. generate highly motivated, conscientious, and effective classroom instructors for all levels of our educational system; and b. increase teachers' dedication to the teaching profession.
Having presented this set of objectives, the National Policy on Education then recommends methods for achieving these objectives. A brief examination of the proposed procedures reveals a comprehensive strategy for increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of the teaching force by providing enough motivation and fundamental human needs. Motivational factors/variables have a role in addressing human needs since it is considered that they contribute to job satisfaction, a good attitude, and, as a result, increased worker productivity (Ozor, 2022).
Since education plays a significant role in the transformation of any society, and teachers are the means by which this is accomplished, it is essential and imperative that the issue of welfare packages for teachers be examined in order to determine the impact of its provision on the attitude and performance of teachers.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In all educational systems across the globe, certain schools are regarded as superior to others. In fact, parents frequently go to considerable efforts to enroll their children in one school rather than another based on such evaluations. Student success, particularly overall performance on public tests, is one criterion for determining this verdict. In addition, some education professionals and researchers limit their comments about schools to instructors' attitudes about teaching and their eventual performance. Some have linked this to teachers' poor welfare packages (Ozor, 2022).
Despite the clear leadership responsibilities instructors play in the classroom towards achieving educational goals, our educational system has not always given adequate attention to teachers' motivation for effective performance. The International Labour Organization (ILO) stated that the position of school teachers in Sub-Saharan Africa (particularly Nigeria) has deteriorated to an unbearable degree (Ejiogu 2022).
Observations indicate that the society perception of the teaching profession has rendered it unappealing and inadequate for addressing economic, social, and psychological demands. Consequently, the issue is: won't the mistreatment and neglect of instructors generate discontent and hinder classroom effectiveness, efficiency, and productivity? On this premise, the study will investigate the effect of welfare services on teachers' work attitudes and job performance.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary objective of this study is to examine the nexus of welfare programs and job performance of English language teachers in Nigerian schools. Specifically, this study seeks to:
i. Determine the extent welfare programs are given to English language teachers in Nigerian schools.
ii. Determine whether welfare programs affects job performance of English language teachers in Nigerian schools.
iii. Examine the types of welfare programs given to English language teachers in Nigerian schools.
iv. Examine the factors affecting welfare programs for English language teachers in Nigerian schools.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions will be answered in this study:
i. What is the extent welfare programs are given to English language teachers in Nigerian schools?
ii. Does welfare programs affects job performance of English language teachers in Nigerian schools?
iii. What are the types of welfare programs given to English language teachers in Nigerian schools?
iv. What are the factors affecting welfare programs for English language teachers in Nigerian schools?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In light of the reality that no nation can advance beyond the quality of its instructors, there is no question that the conclusions of this study would be of tremendous importance to many stakeholders in education. For instance, government entities would benefit from the findings. The government's understanding of the significance of proper provision and consistent management of assistance packages would be improved.
Also, it would help educational administrators and policymakers who need empirical data to get the most out of teachers; it could also provide guidance for motivating teachers in secondary education systems by identifying job satisfaction and dissatisfaction variables that can be used to improve teachers' attitude towards work and job performance.
In addition, other stakeholders in education, including parents, philanthropists, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Alumni Associations, international agencies, and corporate entities, among others, would be encouraged to offer material or monetary assistance to the welfare of teachers.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is focused on the nexus of welfare programs and job performance of English language teachers in Nigerian schools. Specifically, this study is focused on determining the extent welfare programs are given to English language teachers in Nigerian schools, determining whether welfare programs affects job performance of English language teachers in Nigerian schools, examining the types of welfare programs given to English language teachers in Nigerian schools and examining the factors affecting welfare programs for English language teachers in Nigerian schools.
English Language teachers in selected secondary schools in Yola, Adamawa State will be the respondents for this study.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Welfare programs: Welfare refers to government-sponsored assistance programs for individuals and families in need, including programs as health care assistance, food stamps, and unemployment compensation.
Job performance: Job performance assesses whether a person performs a job well. Job performance, studied academically as part of industrial and organizational psychology, also forms a part of human resources management. Performance is an important criterion for organizational outcome and success.
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