Instructional resources which are educational input are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. It has been defined as learning resources associated with objects, persons or other aspects of the environment which can be used to impact, or help in any learning activity (Iyunade, 2014). Instructional materials are befits the teacher as it make instruction easier and the learners as it make the learning objectives clearer (Iyunade, 2014). Instructional materials if effectively used are capable of captivating students‟ interest; stimulating desires in learning and make them participates in the lesson (Mba, 2004). In a situation like this, students‟ Teaching and Learning could be positively influence. Instructional materials include both the printed and audio-visual materials and as well resource places and person. Printed instructional materials include, but not limited to textbooks, journal articles, instructor manuals and guides, student workbooks, assignments, and other reference materials. Audio-visual materials consist of electronic videos, audiotapes, slides, filmstrips, radio and/or television (Onyilagha & Nnajiofor 2016).
Government is a core subject and subject offered by art and commercial students at Senior secondary school. for all students in Secondary school in Nigerian educational system due to its relevance in enabling citizens acquire skills, knowledge, attitude and values with which they will use to explore their environment so as to have a comfortable and fulfilled life (Olayinka, 2016). To enable the acquisition of skills attitude, values and knowledge and development of self-confidence and self- actualization of the younger generation as envisage by the Nigerian Policy of Education (2004) which is in line with the objectives of teaching Government in Secondary schools in Nigeria, the use of instructional material becomes necessary and needed tool which cannot be over emphasized. This implies that for effective achievement of Government objectives, teachers most employ instructional materials in Government instruction at all times. It on this fact, that researcher such as Olayinka (2016) and Agreement and Ontiretse (2011) conduct empirical studies.
Teaching and Learning is a major aspect of school system. It has been conceived as the reflection of students’ ability in academic work (Okeke, & Attah, 2010) which shows how well a student performs in test and examination (Olibie, & Ezeoba, 2013). Teaching and Learning of students is an area that is given wide research over the years. This is due to the poor performance students observed in public and school examination (Agreement, & Ontiretse, 2011). Instructional materials therefore, are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teachers’ efficiency and improve students’ performance. Studies on influence of instructional material on Teaching and Learning of students in Government available to this researcher are conducted in Bostwana (Agreement, & Ontiretse, 2011) and Ekiti state ( Olayinka, 2016). There is therefore, the need to carry out similar study in Kaduna state thus this informed the present research with the hope that it will fill up the gap in literature and attempts to find out if the use of instructional materials could improve the performances of students in this subject at the junior senior secondary school.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The desire to carry out this research was due to the problem of poor examination performance by the Secondary schools students, in Kaduna North L.G.A. This poor examination performance has been recorded for some years by the State Education Management Board. It was observed that, some concepts in secondary school Government curriculum are difficult for students to learn. There is no doubt that children performance can be substantially improved through the application of simple practice and the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning can improve the situation. Therefore, the problem of this study hinges on the determination of the extent to which the use of instructional materials enhances teaching and learning which affects students’ performance in Government at Secondary school.
This study was based on the following objectives which are to:-
1. Determine the difference in the mean of pre-test and post-test performance scores of SS III students when taught Government concepts with the use of instructional materials.
2. Determine the difference in the mean pre-test and post-test performance scores of SS III students when taught Government concepts without the use of instructional materials.
1. What is the difference in the mean of pre-test and post-test performance scores of SS III students when taught Government concepts with the use of instructional materials?
2. What is the difference in the mean pre-test and post-test performance scores of SS III students when taught Government concepts without the use of instructional materials?
The following null hypotheses were tested in this study.
Ho: There is no significant difference in the mean pre-test and post-test performance scores of SS III students when taught Government concepts with the use of instructional materials.
Ho: There is no significant difference in the mean pre-test and post-test performance scores of SS III students when taught Government concepts without the use of instructional materials.
This study is expected to be relevant to the following:
1. Help to bring awareness of teachers on the need to at all time used instructional materials in class room instruction.
2. The study will stimulate school administrators to ensure that teachers make use of instructional materials effectively
3. This study would enable the State Education Board to appreciate the relevance and provides instructional materials in teaching-learning not only in Government but in all subject areas; and
4. This study will be a material in which other research can make reference to.
The study is limited to two schools with 234 sampled students broken into two groups of experimental group and control group in Kaduna North and Kaduna South local government areas of Kaduna state.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Instructional Materials: All kinds of materials for instructional process. This will also be taken to include all kinds of instructional media.
Instructional Media: All kinds of instructional media employed in teaching., these inculcate, television, radio, textbooks, computer models, flat-pictures, graph, charts, diagrams, comics, posters, flannel broads, magnetic board, maps, globes, slides, films strips, motion pictures, transparencies, projectors, records players, tape-records players, tape-recorders, cassette players video tape and recorders.
Equipment: Instructional media which are used in presenting the materials. It includes, bulletin board, cardboard, tape recorder, slide and film strips, projectors, motion pictures, overhead projectors, opaque projectors, and other forms of projectors.
Audio-Visual Materials: Instructional materials that may be used to convey meaning without complete dependence or verbal symbols or language. It does not include printed materials like textbooks and reference books, examples, television, cassette, video-tapes.
Improvised or Teacher Made: These include instructional materials which are made by teachers or pupils or jointly by both pupils and teaches, using resource from the school environment or raw materials which are imported from outside the school environment, e.g. maps, pictures, slides.
Imported Materials: Instructional materials which are not made by the teachers or pupils or by both of them
Resource Centre: Production centre where most of the instructional materials can be produced, acquired, stored and maintained for instructional purposes.
Field Teachers: This refers to all the classroom teachers who use the instructional materials in teaching pupils/students. They can design, produce or recommend the purchasing of any instructional materials that they feel relevant in teaching any specific topic as stipulated in the instructional objectives.
State Primary Education Board: The term refers to the board at state headquarters controlling the affairs of all Local Government Education Authorities in the State.
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