1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
For any individual to acquire good and quality education, there will be need for them to have access to information materials that will help them widen their horizon, develop knowledge, perform better in their studies from works of scholars in their respective fields of study. These materials are not just being sourced for by these individuals especially when they are enrolled as students in schools because it is part of the obligations of the school management to provide them with these educational materials, hence the necessity for making library resources available in schools for teachings, learning and research. The school library is a significant part of the auxiliary school instruction framework which uphold training all in all. It assumes a significant function in the educating and learning measure. It very well may be viewed as the scholastic operational hub of the school. School libraries are important in each auxiliary school setting, this is on the grounds that its assortments when applied in training makes learning simpler and justifiable to students.
School libraries are sorted out assortment of books set in schools for instructors and students. It might involve reference books and books for home perusing under the consideration of an expert curator. It is a key unit in any school, paying little mind to its instructive way of thinking. As indicated by Unegbu (2012), a school library can be supposed to be a scaled down scholarly force to be reckoned with or data focus found in elementary schools, optional schools and educators trade schools, that is, it is a venturing stone towards a student’s scholarly turn of events. The writer further expressed that a school library is a composed assortment of books put in school for use by both the educators and students. Nwaigwe (2012) states that school libraries are found in pre-essential and auxiliary, essential and optional schools that have assortments for small kids. They contain a wide assortment of instructing and learning assets for their understudies and educators. As indicated by Aniebo (2007), school libraries uphold and advance the scholarly program of their parent body just as serve the understudies and educators. As per Ugocha (2011) school libraries will be libraries built up, kept up and controlled at essential, optional or other post grade schools, for example, instructor's trade schools whose destinations are to give data administrations to help educating and learning exercises in schools. The creator further expresses that a school library is an instructional focus providing the fundamental vital data materials as well as that, which gives the motivating forces, the direction and atmosphere basic and favorable for learning. Anumkua, Alaehie and Igbokwe (2016) see school library as a data place situated in a school domain whose obligations are to distinguish, gather, arrange, store, protect, recover and spread data to the individuals from a school network to be specific instructors, students and non-instructional exercise staff with a perspective on fulfilling their changing and differing academic needs. The author further express that a school library is where all Carriers of data are gathered, put away and used to help and improve every instructive movement in schools.
The primary purposeful exertion at the foundation and advancement of school libraries by the Nigeria government was in 1961 with the greeting of UNESCO to guidance on the most proficient method to create school libraries. The aftereffect of the activity prompted the foundation of Federal Ministry of Education school library administrations in Lagos, which inevitably spread to the state level (Ugocha, 2011: 67). The subsequent positive advance by the central government was the arrangement of the aggregate of N 1.4 million for elementary school library improvement all through the nation in the second National Development plan. Somewhere in the range of 1970 and 1974 cash planned for this plan streamed down to the states through portion dissemination of this aggregate to states during the arrangement time frame. Such a turn of events, as indicated by Ifeka (2004), made it workable for some states to make positive arrangement for the advancement of school libraries in their particular territories by making some monetary arrangement for school library improvement in their yearly financial plan during the period. Library assets are essential for information and data resources of an association, division or unit. Onwubiko and Uzoigwe (2004) allude to library assets as the entirety of data materials that structure a library assortment. The assets are obtained to fulfill the data needs of the library customer base and to understand the parent institutional objective. As indicated by them, library assets are arranged into two; print and non-print materials. The print materials are in type of books (monographs) and serials while Okoro (1999) is of the view that book library assets establish the principle wellspring of data. Library assets are those assets or property, which encourage routine activities of the library. Successful library administrations are just conceivable when there is subjective and quantitative ampleness of pertinent library assets. It's implied hence, that agreeable library and data administrations are unimaginable without sufficient arrangement of library assets. Chernik (2002), states that the school libraries consolidate a wide range of media into their assortments and projects, for example, sound tapes, video tapes, movies of every kind customized learning and PC helped guidance. The writer further expresses that school libraries give books, media and chart creation offices and gear to help guidance, regardless of whether they are TV sets and cameras or overhead projectors. Attama and Ezema (2002) order the assets of school libraries into books which comprises of a lot of printed sheet held together along one of the four edges and encased inside profitable spread to frame a volume and other written words like pampwets which are library assets that appeal to our faculties of hearing and sight, and they incorporate slides, films, sound tapes, sound tapes, video tapes, PC and frill, which are electronic media and they contain back-up offices, for example, diskettes, CD – ROM, attractive tapes and punched cards. Accessibility, as per Hornby (2006), implies being handily gotten to, not being scant or unavailable; things that one can get, purchase or find. It is the ability of something being available to one, something being free and not in any case involved. It is a presentation measure for repairable frameworks that represent both the dependability and viability properties of a segment or framework. Accessibility is characterized as the likelihood that the framework is working appropriately when it is mentioned for use. As it were the likelihood a framework doesn't fall flat, or go through a fix activity when it should be utilized. Accessibility is the availability of a framework in a convenient way; it implies being nearby, fit for being gotten, being available and prepared to utilize. In the expressions of Dipeolu (2006) accessibility intends to accomplish an end, satisfy a capacity; a stock gracefully that can be drawn upon. It is constantly connected with time and has to do with the availability of a framework asset in an ideal way; for example is the estimation of a framework's uptime. Accessibility is one of the six essential segments of data security. Tefko (2003) attests that accessibility is the condition prepared and available when required or required; while usage is the utilization of assets so as to fulfill given needs on ordinary premise. Usage is to utilize successfully, that is the capacity to adequately utilize something accessible, which uncovers that use is represented by accessibility and availability, and can't be viable without both at the opportune time. Usage varies from individual to individual and starting with one corporate association then onto the next, as per their data needs and financial objectives. As it were, usage is impacted by the sort or nature of things being completed. At long last, accessibility is the condition of giving and making open fundamental offices, hardware and assets should have been productive and successful in accomplishing a lot of objectives in any association or establishment. Use then again is augmenting the utilization of those assets made accessible to fulfill given needs on normal premise. Subsequently, accessibility and usage of school library assets is the condition of giving and making open the vital assets required for serving the data needs of the clients. In this manner, school library assets can be severally used for different reasons and could be procured through buy, obtaining, blessings, gifts, trade, advances, etc. As indicated by Aniebo (2004), auxiliary training will furnish all grade school leavers with the chance of more significant level of instruction independent of sex, societal position, religion or ethnic foundation. It is likewise to offer broadened educational program to cook for the distinctions in gifts, openings and future jobs, and give prepared labor in the applied sciences, innovation and business at sub-proficient levels. Additionally auxiliary instruction will create and advance Igbo language and different dialects in Nigeria, expressions and culture with regards to world social legacy, and move understudies with a craving for self - improvement and accomplishment of greatness. Again optional instruction is to encourage public solidarity with an accentuation on the basic ties that join us in assorted variety, raise an age of individuals who can think for themselves regard perspectives and sentiments, of others, regard the pride of work, and welcome those qualities determined under our public objectives and lives as productive member of society lastly to give specialized information and professional aptitudes essential for agrarian, mechanical, business and financial turn of events. Libraries are stores of information composed for use. Post elementary school libraries are situated inside optional schools with the sole reason for offering types of assistance to help instructing and learning. The school library is outfitted towards executing the motivation behind the schools' overall projects, and to meet the instructive goals of the organization (Ksaur, 1995). The assignment of the school administrator or instructor curator is consequently diverse, thinking about the intricate idea of the clients, and the assortment of learning premiums.
The main users of the school library are students who need information to complete lesson notes, write assignments and provide materials from their subject areas. In addition, students expect libraries to provide them with material that is not their subject and to play a school role in which they can keep up with the development of social, political, economic and cultural situations. The school library is expected to provide easy reading that can help students broaden their horizons to appreciate and value their culture, as well as develop a moral and intellectual horizon and improve academic achievement in school. As well as a forum to encourage students to understand the environment and graduate as educated and prosperous (Aniebo, 2004: 34). It is therefore, against this backdrop that this study intends to investigate the availability and utilization of school library resources and academic performance in selected secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government, Delta State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
For any individual to acquire good and quality education, there will be need for them to have access to information materials that will help them widen their horizon, develop knowledge, perform better in their studies from works of scholars in their respective fields of study. These materials are not just being sourced for by these individuals especially when they are enrolled as students in schools because it is part of the obligations of the school management to provide them with these educational materials, hence the necessity for making library resources available in schools for teachings, learning and research.
The library helps school teachers achieve the goals of producing well-informed and prepared students for lifelong education. The full range of information resources are needed for the school library to function. This includes helping children develop their reading habits, improve their reading skills, and study habits. Library facilities contain information in print and non-print formats such as textbooks, magazines, indexes, newspapers and magazines, reports, the Internet, videotapes and diskettes. Connoway and Laurence (2003) have pointed out that the unavailability of school resources such as library resources negatively affects the motivation and learning of staff and students. Maram and Ogun (2002) confirm that the high unavailability of library resources in most school libraries has a negative impact on the use of library resources and the academic performance of students in schools. In other cases, facilities may be available in the library, but users may not be able to use them because these resources are inaccessible (Aguolu and Aguolu, 2002). The researcher found that the problem of poor performance, poor research habits, poor reading skills and learning habits is more pronounced in schools with poorly equipped libraries, limited reading times, and meeting the needs of students, hence it becomes necessary to find out the availability and utilization of school library resources and academic performance in selected secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government, Delta State.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this research was to examine the availability and utilization of school library resources and academic performance in selected secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government, Delta State. Other specific objectives include to:
1. Find out the school library resources available in selected secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government, Delta State.
2. Examine how regular students utilize available school library resources in selected secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government, Delta State.
3. Find out why students use library resources in selected secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government, Delta State.
4. Find out how the utilization of library resource has impacted academic performance of students in selected secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government, Delta State?
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions provided a guide for this study.
1. What are the school library resources available in selected secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government, Delta State?
2. How regular do students utilize the available library resources in selected secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government, Delta State?
3. Why do students use school library resources in selected secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government, Delta State?
4. How has the utilization of library resource impacted academic performance of students in selected secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government, Delta State?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The study developed for testing the following hypothesis:
H0: There is no significant positive relationship between utilization of library resources and academic performance of students.
HA: There is a significant positive relationship between utilization of library resources and academic performance of students.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
A vivid understanding of library resources, its importance and need for availability and utilization by students as well as the significant role it places in the academic performance of students would be of immense relevant to managements of schools, the government, researchers, students and all the various bodies that comes to play when talking of library resources and student academic performance. The outcome of the study will help students to strategize and reconstruct their attitude regarding the utilization of available library resources in their schools. It will also push them further to identify the exciting benefits that comes when school library resources are utilized by students.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study focuses on examining the availability and utilization of school library resources and academic performance in selected secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government, Delta State. The study investigates the availability or resources in selected secondary schools, the utilization of the school library resources by students in the selected secondary schools, the reason why students use the school library resources in selected secondary schools; and to find out how the utilization of library resource has impacted academic performance of students in selected secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government, Delta State. The study is restricted to a sampled population of students in six (6) selected secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government, Delta State.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This research work was carried out in Ethiope East Local Government, Delta State. The subjects of the study were limited to six (6) selected secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government of Delta State only. The researcher encountered various challenges during the research process. They included insufficient funds for stationery, transport and buying other important materials to facilitate the carrying of the study. Also shortage of time because the researcher conducted the study in selected schools located far apart from each other.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Library: A library is any room which contains learning resources such as books, writings and journals that students use. Other resources are like films, tapes, pictures and charts models and a host of other teaching materials in addition to the printed books to which most people are accustomed (Farrant, 1981).
School Library: According to Adefarati, E.O. (2002). a school library is a library in public or private elementary or secondary school that serves to provide information needs of its students and the curriculum needs of its teachers and staff. The library is usually managed by a school librarian. The school library equips students with lifelong learning skills and develops the imagination, enabling them to live as responsible citizens.
Performance: This refers to the positive achievement expected from students in terms of learning and character.
Academic performance: This refers to how well or badly a student does in his/her study.
Utilization: This refers to the use of resources in order to satisfy given needs on regular basis.
Availability: This refers to the state of being ready and accessible when required or needed.
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