1.1 Background to the Study
The importance of any educational program is to guarantee that the system's products are equipped with the necessary skills, fundamental scientific knowledge, and attitude to enable students to tackle the demands of the workplace (Adeleye, 2018). For a nation to be capable of bringing about behavioral changes in individuals and seeing quick progress, it must provide the correct value and education capable of growing kids into sound and effective citizens who are fit and accountable to themselves and the community at large (Obi, 2016). To achieve these noble goals as quickly as possible, the Nigerian government's efforts are geared on developing individuals who are self-sufficient and contribute significantly to global economic difficulties. That is why a pre-vocational course was included to the curriculum of Nigerian junior secondary schools.
The business studies curriculum combines the learning of both intellectual and practical abilities that may assist pupils adapt into post-school employment contexts. This is why business studies is considered as a practical topic (Adeleke, 2017). To make these goals a reality, an effective teaching technique and learner supports cannot be overstated. There are numerous challenges associated with the effective teaching and learning of business studies, including insufficient qualified teachers, inadequate funding, inadequate infrastructures, class overcrowding, poor student and teacher attitudes, and insufficient instructional materials (Ajisafe, Bolarin, and Edeh, 2020), all of which are evident in Minna Local Government Area. Efforts should thus be made to limit its impact. Congratulations to Nigeria's new educational curriculum, which now exposes junior secondary school pupils to vocational studies by making business studies a mandatory subject rather than an optional one. It was anticipated that this would foster an early desire to experiment in the market place with some of the indigenous inventiveness present in our country. One of the most significant issues confronting the Nigerian educational system in the field of business studies is the requirement for professors to stay current on business trends. The corporate world is always changing, and it is difficult for teachers to keep up with new advances. The result would be incompetent instructors who are poor even in their claimed areas of specialty. As such, business studies is a practical focused topic that requires competent teachers for successful delivery and acquisition of knowledge (Iribe, 2019).
According to Ajisafe, Bolarin, and Edeh (2015), there is a big worry to devote total attention to the quality and number of instructors we have in secondary schools in order to reach and attain the aims for which these secondary schools were formed without any hindrance or hinderance. As a result, the most important qualification for a competent qualified teacher is to be adequately trained as a professional teacher and to have a solid understanding of what to teach. Today, unqualified teachers teaching business studies in our secondary schools have served as canker-worms, consuming the efforts of accomplishing the educational objectives for this subject. It has been noticed that a person cannot offer what he does not have (Iribe, 2019).It is obvious that no one can accomplish a job satisfactorily if the necessary materials or equipment are not available. Personal observation has revealed that teachers appear to be more concerned with finishing the business studies syllabus in time for exams than with imparting business skills and literacy using the constructivist teaching technique as specified in the syllabus. In the classroom, technique is a valuable instrument for conveying business ideas or theories, as well as the practical side of improving students' attitudes and accomplishment (Akpan, Umoudo & Ukut, 2018).
Because business studies is a practical topic, its teaching should combine both the theoretical and the practical, with the use of instructional aids to increase learning and simplify lesson delivery. However, in Minna Local Government, there is an insufficient supply of these material, either actual or improvised, such as typewriters and computers, among other things, to supplement teaching and learning. According to Akpan, Umoudo, and Ukut (2018), the usage of instructional resources by business studies instructors is extremely restricted, and most of the time, business studies teachers teach verbally, which has a direct impact on the successful teaching and learning of business studies. Another barrier to effective business education is a lack of motivation and attitude among students and professors. The attention and attitudes of instructors and students toward business studies teaching and learning in secondary schools have a significant impact. Adeleke (2017) observed that professors' negative attitudes deter and scare students away from pursuing the topic. This is because if students are not properly directed, they grow afraid of the professors and the material, resulting in a lack of enthusiasm and poor student performance since effective teaching does not occur.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Business studies teaching and learning in Niger State junior secondary schools has developed throughout time, with a greater emphasis on student-centered teaching approaches. There is a greater expectation that business courses will play a role in boosting the economy. One may argue, however, that there is still a gap between what business studies was meant for and the realities of our work (Joshua & Bibiana, 2015 cited in Tang, Gu, & Whinstone, 2021). Many obstacles have been identified as impeding successful teaching and learning of business studies in secondary schools, including a lack of competent teachers, insufficient instructional resources, bad teaching methods, and poor student and teacher attitudes and interest, among others. As a result, if these issues are not addressed as expected, the successful teaching and learning of business studies would be hampered. It is against this background that this study intended to find out the challenges of teaching business studies as a subject in secondary schools in Minna Local Government area of Niger state with special reference to some selected secondary schools.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of the study was to ascertain the challenges of teaching business studies as a subject in secondary schools in Minna Local Government Area of Niger State. Specifically, the study sought to:
i. Determine whether teaching method effect teaching and learning of business in secondary schools.
ii. Establish whether inadequate instructional materials obstructs effective teaching and learning of business studies in secondary schools.
iii. Investigate the extent to which students and teachers’ attitudes affect the teaching and learning of business studies in secondary schools.
iv. Ascertain measures of curbing the challenges of teaching and learning business studies
1.4 Research Questions
The study was guided by the following research questions.
i. Does method of teaching affects teaching and learning of business in secondary schools?
ii. Does inadequate instructional materials obstructs effective teaching and learning of business studies in secondary schools?
iii. What is the extent to which students and teachers’ attitudes affect the teaching and learning of business studies in secondary schools?
iv. What are the measures of curbing the challenges of teaching and learning business studies?
1.5 Significance of the Study
It was expected that successful completion of this study would be of immense value to teachers, students, scholars, government policy makers, and teacher training institutions with the challenges facing the teaching of business studies and solutions suggested would help improve the performance in the subject. The findings of the study would provide equipped teachers with the solution related to teacher inefficiency and managing students’ posed factor by implementing suggested recommendation for effective teaching and learning of business studies.
Furthermore, the study would benefit students by providing practical solutions to some of the reasons of poor attitudinal, low performance and study techniques to improve the understanding of the subject matter and improving students’ achievement scores. The study would serve as an additional literature to scholars studying about business studies and form a base to further studies on the subject and aiding research and contribute to the existing body of knowledge
Finally, the findings of the study would also provide policy makers with a basis for policing and implementing the suggested recommendation for improving the students’ achievement in business studies. The study would provide valuable information to teacher training institutions on what to include in teacher education curriculum for business studies teachers.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The research work was strictly concerned with the Challenges of teaching business studies as a subject in secondary schools in Minna Local Government Area of Niger state with reference to some selected secondary schools. It also focused on the identification of the problems associated with the teaching of business studies from the teachers, students and government policy angle.
Certain constraints were encountered in the course of this research work which included limited time to carry out the research, fund, reluctance of some respondents and dearth of literature on challenges facing business studies in Minna, Niger State.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Achievement: This is a noteworthy accomplishment of studying business studies after much effort put in practice.
Attitude: a settled way of thinking or feeling about business studies
Business Studies: Business Studies is a broad subject allowing the in-depth study of a range of specialties such as economics, accountancy, finance, organization, human resources management and marketing.
Challenges: This are issues, problems facing the effective teaching and learning of business studies.
Learning: This is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences in business
Student: This is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution who attends business studies classes
Teacher: This is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue on business studies.
Teaching: This is a process impacting knowledge, competence or virtue to business students by a trained business teacher.
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