THE IMPACT OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF ECONOMICS STUDENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Economics is a fascinating field of study. The significance of Economics as a topic for high school students cannot be overstated. Every senior secondary school student is required to take the topic from senior secondary school one (S.S.S 1) through senior secondary school three (S.S.S3), when the senior school certificate examination (S.S.C.E) and National Examination Council (N.E.CO) are administered. The policy places economics in the same category as other key subjects such as mathematics, English, science, etc (WAEC, 2022).
Aluko (2022) pointed out that economics encompasses production, distribution, and consumption across a broad scope. Noting that this breadth encompasses every activity a society engages in, the benefits of learning economics are enormous and include the following:
a. Economics teaches customers how to utilize our resources rationally.
b. it helps us to apply its concepts to actual issues, so preventing costly and avoidable errors.
C. It empowers us as individuals to make prudent financial decisions.
d. It assists planners in effectively preparing for the nation's economic growth.
b. Finally, it prepares pupils for the world at large. It prepares the student to have a deeper grasp of societal issues and, as a result, to suggest effective solutions to them.
These are a few advantages of economics for both individuals and students.
In recent years, the study of economics has been confronted with several obstacles. The issue or difficulty of secondary school economics instructional materials is one of the most significant of these obstacles. Teachers vary in personality, behavior, and work attitudes. Teachers also vary in their methods of instruction and presentation of course information. Nonetheless, these educators share a common goal: to facilitate student learning (Emeka 2022).
The primary function of a teacher in any instructional setting is communication. The instructor attempts to modify the learner's behavior by representing facts and information, teaching rules and procedures, attracting the learner's attention through meaningful involvement, accelerating their thinking, and exciting their imagination for successful knowledge transfer. Considerations like class size, equipment, and facilities must be made while selecting an acceptable teaching technique. In secondary schools, many economics students are taught either through the conventional lecture style or using antiquated and insufficient instructional tools. As a consequence, students learn economics out of obligation rather than genuine enthusiasm.
At the cost of non-traditional ways such as the scientific method of inquiry or the use of pertinent instructional materials and learning, it is nevertheless usual to discover teachers employing the classic teaching and chalking method. They assist the teacher educate more effectively and make learning more engaging and less demanding. Additionally known as instructive instructional media (Vincent, 2022).
In other words, instructional materials encompass all information carriers that may be utilized to support and encourage successful teaching and learning activities.
The resources range from chalks, markers, textbooks, illustrated images, charts, maps, and photographs to projectors, cassettes, records, and videos, among others.
It is possible to categorize instructional materials according to the sense organs (hearing or sight) they appeal to. These are visual (sense of sight), auditory (sense of hearing), and audio-visual (senses of sight and hearing) aids (sense of hearing and sight).
Farrant (2022) stated that the quality of any selected and applied instructional material can be evaluated based on its relevance, adequacy, neatness, validity, applicability, and the number of senses it appeals to. It has been observed that many of the existing instructional materials used in teaching economics in senior secondary schools would not fare well if evaluated using these criteria. As a consequence, kids either learn through abstract memory or do not learn at all.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
According to Aluko (2022), the instructional approach and instructional resources accessible to economics students provide one of the most significant obstacles to their learning.
How much a student learns may be influenced by the instructional techniques and instructional materials employed. The importance of instructional aids or materials cannot be overstated, as they teach students to ask excellent questions, seek acceptable and reasonable solutions, confront reality, and think critically about economics problems in imaginative and difficult ways (Vincent, 2022).
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary objective of this study is to investigate the impact of instructional aids on the academic achievement of economics students. In achieving this broad objective, the research specifically seeks to;
i. Find out the extent instructional aids are used in teaching economics in secondary schools.
ii. Find out whether the use of instructional aids to tech economics affects academic achievement.
iii. Examine the types of instructional materials used in teaching economics in secondary schools.
iv. Examine the challenges of using instructional methods to teach economics in secondary schools.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions will be answered in this study:
i. To what extent are instructional aids used in teaching economics in secondary schools?
ii. Does the use of instructional aids to tech economics affects academic achievement?
iii. What are the types of instructional materials used in teaching economics in secondary schools?
iv. What are the challenges of using instructional methods to teach economics in secondary schools?
1.5 SIGNIFIANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study lies in the fact that it will make the learning environment more realistic and probable. The study will demonstrate the efficacy of existing economics teaching resources. The study will identify the areas in which the utilization of instructional aids is deficient in the economics classroom. The investigation will reveal which educational resources are utilized and which are lacking. The study will give advice for instructors on how to utilize available economics educational resources successfully.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is focused on the impact of instructional aids on the academic achievement of economics students. Precisely, this study is focused on finding out the extent instructional aids are used in teaching economics in secondary schools, finding out whether the use of instructional aids to tech economics affects academic achievement, examining the types of instructional materials used in teaching economics in secondary schools and examining the challenges of using instructional methods to teach economics in secondary schools.
Economics teachers and students of selected secondary schools in Umuahia, Abia State will serve as the respondents for the survey of this study.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
During the course of carrying out the study, the researcher came into a few obstacles, which is to be expected given the human nature of the undertaking. The researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the process of data collection, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. The scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the nature of the discourse also contributed to the researcher's decision to use a small sample size. In addition, the researcher was involved in a number of other academic activities at the same time that she was conducting her investigation. In addition, because the study instrument was only given to a limited number of respondents to complete, the findings cannot be generalized to secondary schools located in other states. In spite of the constraints that were present during the course of the inquiry, every facet was examined and minimized in order to guarantee the most successful outcomes and the most fruitful study.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Impact: A marked effect or influence
Instructional aids: Instructional aids are used in the classroom to encourage learning and thereby make it easier and interesting. The materials like charts, maps, models, concrete objects, film strips, projector, radio, television etc. which help a teacher for effective teaching may be called instructional aids.
Academic achievement: Academic achievement or academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor's degrees represent academic achievement.
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