FACTORS AFFECTING THE SHORTAGE OF TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Because education is one of the most essential parts of human resource development, it is critical that every kid have the chance to reach his or her full academic potential (Elimu, 2008). Despite the government's efforts, the government's aim of delivering universal education has not been met. Many stakeholders' contributions in primary schools, including local communities, have been a "symptom" indicating a lack of teaching and learning resources as a result of poor academic achievement. This symptom must be carefully investigated to determine its underlying cause so that intentional actions may be done to remedy the situation (Pediatr, 2005). It is undeniable that instructional materials have an impact on students' teaching and learning throughout their educational growth. Students must be exposed to some type of simulation when learning at any level. According to Adekunle (2008), instructional material in social studies refers to everything that might help the instructor promote teaching and learning. When kids are given the opportunity to study through more than one sense, they learn more quickly and easily. Because they drive learners to learn more, the utilization of instructional materials gives the instructor with fascinating and engaging platforms for imparting knowledge. Furthermore, the instructor receives assistance in overcoming physical challenges that may have hampered his ability to effectively convey a specific topic (Haki, 2003). One of the philosophies of Nigerian education, as stated in the National Policy on Education, is "the development of the person into a sound and productive citizen." Social studies was brought into the Nigerian school system to fulfill this goal (FGN, 2004). Because social studies is an integrated program that is taught and learned in a classroom setting, it is easy to achieve this goal. Social studies examines all area of a child's existence in society. Education is also to accomplish the inculcation of national awareness and national unity; the inculcation of the correct sort of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and Nigerian society, according to the National Policy on Education (2004). As a result, Social Studies education has played a role in determining whether a society will have democratic attitudes, values, problem-solving, and decision-making abilities, as well as if it would be made up of productive and participatory citizens (Keeler, 2008). Through the use of instructional resources, it is possible to make the learning process simple, long-lasting, and relevant in Social Studies education, which has been assigned such a significant purpose. Orakwe (2000) defines instructional materials as "society-sourced information repositories used to impart desired information to students during classroom teaching." Instructional Materials, according to Agwu (2001), are those instructional aids that include textbooks, workbooks, charts, audio visual aids, chemicals, specimens, and other relevant items that will pique students' interest and should only be introduced by the teacher at the proper moment. Learning materials include software and technology that are used to make classes more relevant and understandable for students. They are devices that appeal to several senses and assist learners in conceiving, perceiving, internalizing, interpreting, and transferring their learning experiences to similar or other contexts. These materials and equipment might include those that appeal to the senses of hearing (audio material equipment), seeing (visual materials/equipment), and combining the two senses (audio-visual materials).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Scholars, researchers, and business educators are concerned about the availability of instructional resources that assure academic program certification and reaccreditation (Otluoglu, 2002). However, there have been complaints of deplorable conditions in Nigerian public educational institutions, particularly secondary schools, expressed by inadequacy or complete lack of instructional resources in the teaching and learning processes. Solomon (2014) backed up the claim, stating that one of the biggest issues confronting schools is a lack of infrastructural amenities, as well as the ongoing failure and deterioration of current instructional facilities, which has impacted students' success and academic performance. In light of this, the purpose of this study is to determine the elements that impact the scarcity of teaching and learning instructional resources in the classroom.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary goal of this study is to determine the elements that influence the scarcity of teaching and learning instructional resources in the classroom. More specifically, the study aims to:
i. Determine the elements that influence the scarcity of instructional materials for teaching and learning.
ii. Find out what learning and teaching materials are available in secondary schools.
iii. Examine the measures utilized in primary schools to improve the availability of teaching and learning materials.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. What are the elements that influence the scarcity of instructional materials for teaching and learning?
ii. what are the learning and teaching materials are available in secondary schools?
iii. What are the measures utilized in primary schools to improve the availability of teaching and learning materials?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study's findings are noteworthy in many ways: First, the study will enhance and enlighten educational planners, policymakers, and other education stakeholders about the present state of educational resources in primary schools, as well as how this influences the teaching and learning process, allowing them to take appropriate action. Second, the study informs education stakeholders about the causes for the variables impacting the scarcity of teaching/learning resources so that they may develop effective ways to solve the issue. Third, it will add to the body of information about the role of educational resources in providing high-quality education. Fourth, this research lays the groundwork for future research on instructional resources in elementary schools and at higher levels of education.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research will be carried out in Ogun State, with secondary schools in Abeokuta North LGA being utilised.
1.7 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Obtaining funding for general research activity will be difficult over the course of studies. Correspondents may also be unable or unwilling to complete or submit the questionnaires that have been sent to them. However, it is expected that these limits will be overcome by making the greatest use of existing resources and devoting more time to research than is required. As a result, it is firmly considered that, despite these constraints, their impact on this research report will be small, allowing the study's purpose and importance to be met.
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