THE INFLUENCE OF TEACHING METHODS ON STUDENTS' ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
1.1 Background to the Study
A teacher is an important figure in teaching and learning process, because he/she follows the curriculum so that throughout the year all the important knowledge is provided to the students. The main purpose of teaching at any level is to bring out a significant change in the learner (Tebabal &Kahssay, 2011). Most of the traditional methods were teacher- centered with no activity for the learners making them passive and therefore obtaining knowledge from the teacher without building their engagement level with the subject matter and the approach is least practical, more theoretical and memorizing (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011).
Student-centered approaches which are more effective are more encouraged because they embrace the concept of discovery learning (Brindley, 2015). Most teachers today apply the student centered approach to promote interest, analytical research, critical thinking and enjoyment among students (Hesson & Shad, 2007). Transferring knowledge requires teachers to use the appropriate method and pedagogy that best suits the learner and suit the objectives and desired outcomes. The pooracademic performance by majority of the students in various subject areas is basically linked to the application of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners and therefore teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies (Adunola, 2011).Teaching is a profession of those who impart knowledge or skill, especially in an elementary or a secondary or in a university.
According to Ayeni (2011), teaching can be defined as a systematic process of transmitting knowledge, attitudes and skills in accordance with professional principles. In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely apply teacher – centered method to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student – centered methods. Until today, questions about effectiveness of teaching methods on students learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of education research (Hightower et al., 2011). According to Adunola (2011), regular poor performance by majority students is fundamentally linked to application of effective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners. Ndirangu (2007) opined that, the choice of a particular method of teaching by the teacher is determined by the number of factors which includes the content to be taught, the objectives which the teacher plans to achieve, availability of teaching and learning resources and the ability and willingness of the teacher to improvise if conventional teaching aids are not available for the evaluation and follow – up activities to check individual learner differences. According to Ayeni (2011), teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes. In order for the method used for teaching to be effective, Adunola (2011) maintains that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The students’ academic performance has always been poor, which may be a consequence of weakness in application of student-centred learning methods in teaching and learning processes. The academic performance of students may be influenced by the approach used in teaching and learning the subject. Thus, students’ poor performance at ordinary secondary school level has been hypothesised to be the result of ineffective teaching methods. Therefore, this reason prompted the researcher to carry out the study on the influence of teaching methods on students academic performance in Awka, Anambra state.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The main objective of the study is to examine the influence of teaching methods on students academic performance in Awka, Anambra state. The study will specifically;
Determine whether there is a significance relationship between teaching method and students academic performance in secondary schools.
Find out the various teaching methods commonly adopted for teaching and learning in secondary schools..
Find out whether students-centered teaching methods is most effective in enhancing the academic performance of students in secondary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The study will be anchored by the following question;
Is there any significance relationship between teaching method and students academic performance in secondary schools?
What are the various teaching methods commonly adopted for teaching and learning in secondary schools?
Is students-centered teaching methods most effective in enhancing the academic performance of students in secondary schools?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho: There is no significance relationship between teaching method and students academic performance in secondary schools.
Ha: There is a significance relationship between teaching method and students academic performance in secondary schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study are essential to a number of stakeholders in the education sector in Nigeria. The findings will provide useful insights on the effectiveness of Students Centered methods on students’ academic performance. Theoretically, this study will add the knowledge about Students Centered methods, concerning the significance of Students Centered methods on students’ performance. Practically, this research was expected to benefit students, that it can be used as a measure to assess their motivation to learn. Knowing the value of Students Centered methods, teachers can assess themselves about the readiness to Students Centered methods for a better academic performance. They are useful to teachers, in school administrators and the government at large. This study helps teachers to appreciate benefits in applying Students Centered methods in teaching and learning. Furthermore, this study provides a better understanding of the teaching methods in secondary schools. The results provide the information about Students Centered methods, overall picture and students’ learning motivation and its role in supporting the students’ performance. These results would help school administrators and the Ministry of Education to insist teachers to apply Students Centered methods in teaching. Finally the study serves as a challenge for further researchers to extend it to other areas about the the influence of teaching method on student performance in public secondary.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
This study is structured to generally examine the influence of teaching methods on students academic performance in Awka, Anambra state. Specifically the study will determine whether there is a significance relationship between teaching method and students academic performance in secondary schools, find out the various teaching methods commonly adopted for teaching and learning in secondary schools, and find out whether students-centered teaching methods is most effective in enhancing the academic performance of students in secondary schools.
1.8 Limitation Of The Study
This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study's completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents' interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).
1.9 Definition Of Terms
This refers to the ability and capacity of the student to achieve an educational aim.
Teaching often involves inquiring, listening, providing information, explaining a phenomena, showing a skill or process, testing understanding and ability, and enabling learning activities
Teaching method comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning.
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