1.1 Background Of The Study
Security issues are global issues that must be addressed in order to establish a conducive climate for socioeconomic progress. Insecurity not only endangers residents' lives and property, but also halts a country's overall growth (Ekene, 2015; Haruna, 2016). As a result, security and development are inextricably linked (Haruna, 2016; Nwanegbo and Odigbo, 2013; Chandler, 2007 as cited in Ewetan and Urhie, 2014). In most African countries, including Nigeria, security challenges have remained a fundamental impediment to real socioeconomic progress.
Various forms of violent insecurity have plagued Nigeria's political history, including civil war, election-related mayhem, riots and rallies, militancy, insurgency, and herdmen/farmer confrontations, among others. In recent times, Nigeria has experienced a significant setback in its educational sector, fueled by the revival of several security challenges, which include armed banditry, kidnapping, and insurgency, among others, posing a substantial threat to the country's national security (Akinbi, 2015; Epron, 2018). States like Zamfara, Taraba, Adamawa, Katsina, Borno, Lagos, Kaduna, Niger, Rivers, and Kogi, among others, have already suffered the impact of these new security challenges. According to Olufemi (2015), Nigerian governments have spent over 462 trillion dollars on national security in the last five years. The governments' efforts to bring the threat to a halt in order to avert a total breakdown of law and order appear to have failed to produce the expected beneficial outcome.
The growth of extortionate bandit operations has added a new dimension to Nigeria's educational challenges. According to recent figures, over 2,295 teachers were killed and 19,000 others were displaced in Bornu, Yobe, and Adamawa States between 2009 and 2018, with an estimated 1,500 schools damaged since 2014, and over 1,280 casualties among teachers and students (Adesulu,2019). Many of these occurrences went unreported by the national media, distorting the genuine picture. However, oppression persists even at the time of this investigation. These attacks impede effective teaching and learning, stifling the nation's development.
For more than eight years, Nigeria's violence and banditry, as well as the resultant humanitarian crises have wreaked havoc on the lives of millions of children, women, and their families. With children under the age of 15 constituting almost 45 percent of the country's population, the burden on education and other sectors has grown unbearably. Thus, this study is focused on assessing the effect of banditry on Nigeria Educational System.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Many children in recent years have been unable to attend school because of the dread of bandits and thugs. Even when children enrol in schools, many do not finish the basic cycle. According to current data, 30 per cent of kids drop out of elementary school and just 54 per cent transit to junior secondary schools. The reasons for this poor completion rate include the Boko Haram insurgency, banditry, and underage labour, among others. On February 29, 2016, Babington Macaulay Junior Seminary, a school on the outskirts of Lagos, was plunged into pandemonium when some kids were taken. It was around 8pm, when pupils of the school were busily studying for their approaching examinations, that a team of 12 armed men struck and kidnapped three schoolgirls. The internationally well-publicized incidence of school kidnapping has given a new dimension to Nigeria's security dilemma as many secondary school attacks have been recorded. There were reports of kidnappings of instructors and students (Lagos Junior Model College, Igbonla) (Lagos Junior Model College, Igbonla). There were additional reports of the killing of students and their teachers. School assemblies are shamelessly detonated in school assemblies, killing many dead (Yobe school assault) while school buildings are burned down, which undermines teaching and learning. Iheamnachor (2015) also stated that five secondary school teachers were taken at gun-point from a school in Rivers State, which left the residents in absolute panic and worry. There were also recorded incidents of religious-induced crises which affected schools. (mission secondary schools located in the Nassarawa district of Jos were attacked by bandits). and many more. Hence, this study focuses on critically assessing the influence of banditry on the educational system of Nigeria.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The primary aim of this study is to critically examine the effect of banditry on the educational system of Nigeria. The specific objectives therefore include;
1. Investigate whether banditry operations have affected educational teaching and learning in Kaduna state.
2. Investigate whether weather banditry has affected the educational calendar in Kaduna state.
3. Investigate whether weather banditry has affected students' academic performance in Kaduna State.
4. Investigate whether weather banditry has affected children's enrolment in schools in Kaduna state.
5. Investigate whether banditry has affected the availability of educational infrastructure in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Question
This study will provide answers to the following questions;
1) Has banditry affected educational teaching and learning in Kaduna state?
2) Has banditry affected the educational calendar in Kaduna state?
3) Has banditry affected students' academic performance in Kaduna State?
4) Has banditry affected children's enrolment in schools in Kaduna state?
5) Has banditry affected the availability of educational infrastructure in Nigeria?
1.5 Significance Of the study
This study vets the effect of banditry threats on the educational system in Nigeria. Hence, the study will unveil the various ways in which banditry has affected education in Nigeria, ranging from its effect on teaching and learning, the educational calendar, children's enrollment in schools, and the availability of educational infrastructure, among many more. The study will hence be relevant to the Nigerian federal government, state governments, stakeholders in the educational sector, teachers and even the general public as the issue of insecurity has raised public concern. The above entities will learn a lot from the findings and the recommendations in this study will be considered useful and applicable to help curtail the menace of banditry in the country. Finally, this study will add to the body of existing literature on the topic under concern.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This study is focused on investigating the effect of banditry operations on educational teaching and learning in Kaduna state, the educational calendar in Kaduna state, students' academic performance in Kaduna State, children's enrolment in schools in Kaduna state and the availability of educational infrastructure in Nigeria. Hence, this study will be limited to four selected secondary schools in Kaduna state.
1.7 Limitations Of The Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher was able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Bandit: This is a robber or outlaw belonging to a gang and typically operating in an isolated or lawless area.
Banditry: This is a type of organized crime committed by outlaws, typically involving the threat or use of violence.
Education: This is the process or the act of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university.
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