Background of the study
The struggle for survival and protection of economic livelihood (including farmlands,crops and cattle) appears to cause conflict between herdsmen and farmers across many communities in Nigeria. Among other factors,environmental changes and security challenges are known as factors forcing herdsmen into new communities in search of adequate pasture to feed their cattle,and by so doing encroach on Farmers’s resources and causing conflict. Conflicts between farmers and herders can be viewed as a matter of land access. In the Middle Belt, the agriculturist population and cultivated land expanded at the expense of pasturelands at the turn of the twenty-first century. In a region that is already politically unstable, determining a legal title to land for every farmer has never been easy. As a result, herders' transhumance routes were no longer viable, particularly in light of global warming. fulani herdsmen from Northern Nigeria have changed their transhumance routes due to deteriorating environmental conditions, desertification, and soil degradation. Herdsmen traveling from the north of the country needed access to pastureland and watering holes in the Middle Belt. Although it is commonly assumed that climate change is the cause of the banditry, recent research suggests that while climate change does not necessarily cause conflict, it does alter the herders' migration patterns. Climate-vulnerable regions (Northern Regions) have less farmer-herder conflict and less intense farmer-herder fighting. It is argued that there are identity differences between people who live in different parts of the world.
The herdsmen attack do not only cause significant human casualties and displacement of local population but also large scale destruction of properties and agro-pastoral economies.
Herdsmen attacks have expanded from the North Central(Middle Belt) where cases of attacks and counter attacks remains endless,to communities in the southeast,northeast and southsouth. Although the herdsmen have been known to carry out attacks on certain communities in Nigeria,the rate at which such actrocities are committed now has escalated. In february 2018 more than 40 people were killed and about 2000 displaced and not less than 100 sustained serious injury( Gever & Essien 2019). herdsmen have the potential to undermine community relationship this is because the conflict has taken more dangerous dimension with the acquisition of modern weapons and communication devices. This has resulted to massive loss of lives and properties. In 2014, groups of heavily armed fulani herdsmen reportedly killed more than 100 villagers in kaduna state, 69 villagers in kastina state and 37 villagers in benue state in separate attacks.These large casualty count per attack remain high, as over 100 people were killed in clashes in southern kaduna and in one incident alone in early 2017. According to Idowu (2017),More than 100,000 people have been displaced in Benue and Enugu States due to clashes between herders and farmers.and entrusted them to relatives or improvised camps for Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs).Many people are still trying to rebuild their lives.
Statement of problem
Due to the emergence of terrorism activities, Fulani herdsmen attacks have been compared to the end results of Boko Haram insurgents. The Fulani herdsmen have had a negative impact on the economy of northern Nigeria in general. Each and every
The economy is being disrupted in one way or another as a result of the ongoing violence.The country is insecure. There is no doubt that the current clashes between herdsmen and Farmers in the middle belt's, predominantly the farming areas have resulted in the The loss of lives and farmland has become a major threat to efforts to increase food production.Thus this study set to find out the implication of fulani herdsmen activities on farmers
Objectives of the study
The primary objective of this study is to:
1. Examine the causes of herdsmen attack on the activities of farmers.
2. To investigate how it has affected the standard of living of farmers.
3. To examine the economic effect of this attacks
The following research question guides this study:
1) Does the attack of herdsmen on the activities of farmers affected the standard of living?
2) How has this attack affected the cost of living in the affected areas?
3) Has this attack affected the nation’s economy?
Significance of the study
This study will be of significance to the government to bring to their knowledge a way of curbing the attacks of Fulani herdsmen on the activities of farmers. This study will serve as an awareness purpose to the general public.Lastly this study will also serve as a reference material to scholars,students and researcher who may want to carry out further research on this study .
Scope of the study
The purpose of this research work is to ascertain the effects of Fulani’s banditry on the activities of farmers in the middle belt region of Nigeria
Limitations of the study
During the course of this study,the major challenges encountered were time constraint to combine both academic work and research work and inadequate finance
Definition of terms
Fulani herdsmen: Fulani herdsmen are nomadic or semi-nomadic fulani people whose primary occupation is raising livestock..The Fulani herdsmen are largely located in the sahel and semi-arid parts of west africa, but due to relatively recent changes in climate patterns, many herdsmen have moved further south into the savannah and tropical forest belt of West Africa.The herdsmen are found in countries such as Nigeria,Niger,Senegal,Guinea,Mauritania.
BANDITRY: This is a type of organized crime committed by outlaws typically involving the threat or use of violence
FARMERS: A farmer is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials. The term usually applies to people who do some combination of raising field crops, orchards, vineyards, poultry or other livestock.
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