HUMAN TRAFFICKING: THE POSITION OF HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Human trafficking is defined as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons through the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or vulnerability, or the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to obtain the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation (Ajzen, and Fishbein,1980). Sex trafficking, forced labor, and financial bondage are the three most frequent kinds of human trafficking. According to the US Department of State, forced labor, also known as involuntary servitude, is the world's largest sector of trafficking (American Immigration Council 2018). Debt bondage is a type of human trafficking in which a person is forced to work in order to repay a debt. Human trafficking, sometimes known as modern-day slavery, is a global issue with a wide scope that is frequently overlooked in the United States (Ajzen, 2012). Human trafficking is defined by the United States Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons by improper means (such as force, abduction, fraud, or coercion) for an improper purpose, such as forced labor or sexual exploitation, or the involvement of minors (people under the age of 18) in commercial sexual activity (U.S. Department of State, 2019). Human trafficking is frequently portrayed as involving women coerced into prostitution. This is only a small part of the picture when it comes to human trafficking. Men and children are among the survivors of human trafficking, and they are exploited in a variety of ways. Women and children are disproportionately affected by sex trafficking, which entails forced involvement in commercial sex activities. In the United States, any kid under the age of 18 who has participated in a commercial sex act is considered a victim of human trafficking. Women and girls account for 80 percent of those trafficked internationally. Every year, 1 million children are exploited in the commercial sex trade by traffickers. Ajzen,(2012) opined that Human trafficking is a heinous violation of basic human rights, and victims can only be rescued when they have contact with the outside world, which is typically only when they seek medical attention.
Healthcare practitioners must be educated on how to spot human trafficking (Hachey & Phillippi, 2017).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Human trafficking is a huge public health hazard across the world Ajzen, (1980). It has been stated that victims of human trafficking seek treatment in healthcare facilities at some point during their exploitation (Egyud, Stephens, Swanson-Bierman, DiCuccio & Whiteman, 2017). In the United States, victims of human trafficking can seek treatment through family primary care clinics, family planning clinics, community health centers, urgent care centers, and emergency departments (Hachey & Phillippi, 2017). According to studies, 80-90 percent of specific demographics of trafficked persons have had contact with a healthcare practitioner at least once while being trafficked, and these victims are frequently unidentified (Chambers, 2019). Healthcare practitioners are particularly placed to recognize and assist victims of human trafficking (Hachey, & Phillippi, 2017). The failure of identification by healthcare practitioners is most likely owing to the clinicians' ignorance of the scope, risk factors, or red flags of human trafficking.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary aim of this study is to assess the role of Health Care Professionals in Human Trafficking. Other aims of this study is to
i. To examine the factors that aid Human Trafficking
ii. To examine the impact of health care professionals in Human Trafficking
iii. To determine the level of effectiveness on the impact of health care professionals in Human Trafficking
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions will guide this study.
i. What are the factors that aid Human Trafficking?
ii. What are the impact of health care professionals in Human Trafficking?
iii. What is the level of effectiveness on the impact of health care professionals in Human Trafficking?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be of great significance to the medical field as the results of this study will show their roles in the prevention of human trafficking. This study will be of benefit to the scholars as it will be used for further studies and future research.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will be focused on the roles of health professionals in human trafficking and how effective they are. Health professionals in the University of Uyo teaching hospital will serve as enrolled participants for this study.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will be limited to the roles of health professionals in human trafficking and how effective they are. Health professionals in the University of Uyo teaching hospital will serve as enrolled participants for this study. This will serve as a limitation to this study.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Health professionals: Health workers are people whose job it is to protect and improve the health of their communities
Human trafficking: It involves an act of recruiting, transporting, transferring, harboring or receiving a person through a use of force, coercion or other means, for the purpose of exploiting them.
American Immigration Council (2018). Immigrants in North Carolina. Retrieved March 21, 2021. https://www.americanimmigrationcouncil.org/research/immigrants-north-carolina
Ajzen, I. (2012). Martin Fishbein’s legacy: The Reasoned Action Approach. The Annuals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 640(1), 11-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716211423363
Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Berishaj, K., & Glembocki, M. (2019). The Impact of an Educational Intervention on the Knowledge and Beliefs of Registered Nurses Regarding Human Trafficking. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 50(6), 269-274.
Egyud, A., Stephens, K., Swanson-Bierman, B., DiCuccio, M., & Whiteman, K. (2017). Implementation of Human Trafficking Education and Treatment Algorithm in the Emergency Department. Journal of Emergency Nursing
Hachey, L., & Phillippi, J. (2017). Identification and Management of Human Trafficking Victims in the Emergency Department. Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal,
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