The rate of car theft nowadays according to daily crime analysis is on the increase. Manual key locks have proven to be inefficient. This thesis aims at designing a radio-controlled car door locking system. The two mainobjectives are to unlock a set of vehicle doors when theowner approaches his or her vehicle and to lock the vehicleafter the owner leaves. In addition to automatic door locking the system monitors the engine for inactivity. After five minutes of inactivity of the driver, the engine automatically deactivates. In order to design this system, the
establishment of wireless communication between the vehicleowner and their vehicle is required. The radio transmission must ensure vehicle security and also bereliable in various climates. In this study, I am using radio frequency identification mechanism for the automation.
RFID, Radio Frequency Identification is an inexpensivetechnology, can be implemented for several applications such assecurity, asset tracking, people tracking, inventory detection,access control applications. The door locking system is implemented using passive type of RFID which can activate, authenticate, andvalidate the user and unlock the door in real time for secureaccess. The advantage of using passive RFID is that it functionswithout a battery and passive tags are lighter and are lessexpensive than the active tags. A centralized system manages thecontrolling, transaction and operation task. The door lockingsystem functions in real time as the door open quickly when user comes near the vehicle. The system also creates a logcontaining check-in and check-out of each user along with basicinformation of user.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background Of The Study
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
1.3 Aims Of The Study
1.4 Objectivesof The Study
1.5 Scope Of The Study
1.6 Limitations Of The Study
1.7 Organization Of The Study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 History of Researches on RFID
2.1.1 Exploiting Wireless Sensors
2.1.2 White space sensor platform
2.1.3 Fixing the PoE and building a white space sensor grid
2.1.4 Lockitron and other commercial lock company efforts
2.2 CHARACTERISTICS AND KEY ATTRIBUTES OF RFID
2.3 RFID FEATURES
18.104.22.168 Using an NFC reader
22.214.171.124 Security of NFC applications
126.96.36.199 Secure elements
188.8.131.52 Security and Privacy of NFC applications
2.3.4 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol server
184.108.40.206 Advantages of PoE
220.127.116.11 Disadvantages of PoE
2.3.6 Alternatives to PoE
2.4 RFID SYSTEM COMPONENTS
2.4.1 RFID tags:
2.4.2 RFID Readers
2.4.3 RFID Reader Specification and Features:
2.5 RFID SYSTEM MODEL:
2.6 Applications of RFID
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY AND SYSTEM DESIGN
3.1 Research Methodology
3.2 Proposed Architecture And Design Of The System
3.3 Overview Of The New System
3.4 Software Requirement
3.4.2 Code Composer Studio
3.5 Hardware Requirement
3.5.1 Mixed Signal Oscilloscope
3.5.4 Hp Procurve Switch 2626
3.5.5 Desktop Pc
3.6 Description Of The Embedded Platform
3.6.2 Daughterboard (Rfid Shield V1.0)
3.7 Connecting The Platform To The Network
3.7.1 Configuring The Dhcp Server
3.8 Serial Peripheral Interface (Spi)
3.9 Choice Of Programming Language
4.1 Verifying The Network Connection
4.2 Udp Echo Software
4.3 Network Booting
4.4 Spi Drivers Configuration
4.5 Implementing The Spi Functions
4.6 Connecting The Daughterboard And Debugging
4.7 Setting Up Appropriate Triggering Of The Mixed Oscilloscope
4.8 Android Application And Rfid Tags
4.9 Udp Server
4.10 The Smart Door Lock
4.11 Power Consumption
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
5.2 Future work
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.4 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Autonomous Radio Identification Vehicle Locking System is designed to improve vehicle security and accessibility. With the use of wireless technology vehicle owners are able to enter as well as protect their automobiles with more passive involvement. Originally, vehicles were accessed and secured manually by inserting a key into a lock. More recently, a keyless entry system was created which allowed the owner to lock and unlock their vehicle withthe touch of a button. Communication between the ownerand the vehicle was established using wireless technology.With the Autonomous Radio Identification Vehicle Locking System,wirelesscommunication expands upon past technology. It is ableto grant access and security without pushing a button. Forthis new technology to work, the vehicle's internalcomputer must be utilized in conjunction with sensors thatcan detect the owner's presence, as well as the status ofthe locks. Finally, the circuit design needs to turn thelocking mechanism in the lock or unlock position. Thefields used are RFcommunication, digital systemssoftware programming, logic circuit design, as well asmicroelectronic design [1Dr. S .N. Sing/ 2018].
RFID, Radio Frequency Identification is a fundamental and inexpensive technology that enables wireless data transmission [Zeydin Pala ET all, 2007]. This technology has not been very often used in industry due to lack of standardization among the manufacturing companies earlier. RFID technologies are efficient [Zhang, 2005] and secure compare to other network. With RFID, wireless automatic identification takes a very specific form: the object, location, or individual is marked with a unique identifier code contained with an RFID tag, which is in some way attached to or embedded in the target. RFID is not a single product but a comprehensive system, a typical RFID system include three basic elements: RFID tag (transponder), reader (transceiver) and back-end application system (or database), which demands the support of the computer network. The software is used for management, controlling, transaction, operation and maintaining record of the various users.
A digital door locking system is also implemented and governed by RFID reader which authenticate and validate the user and open the door automatically. It also keeps the record of check-in and check-out of the user. It’s very important to authenticate the user before entering into a secure space and RFID provide this solution. The system enables user to check-in and check-out under fast, secure and convenient conditions. The system include door locking system which open when the user put their tag in contact with reader and the user information matched with the information already stored in database. The RFID controls the opening and closing of the door. In this study we utilize RFID technology to provide solution for secure access of a space while keeping record of the user. We used passive type of RFID here. The passive types of RFID are battery-less and they obtain power to
operate from reader. The major advantages of passive RFID are its cost effective and small in size. Due to above advantages, it is widely used by inventory tracking technology [Goodrum, 2006]. Current antenna technology makes it possible to smaller in size.
1.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Due to inefficiency of already developed car door locking system which has led to numerous car thefts, there arises the need to research further on the best way to ensure top security of our cars. Manual key locking system which was the first to be implemented failed due to the ease at which car thieves can produce keys which open car doors. An automatic, more intelligent system is therefore needed
To develop our smart door lock there are some sub-problems we need to solve. First we need to study two basic technologies: RFID technology and a network attached door lock. We will combine these technologies to develop our smart door lock. Based upon our study of RFID we must create an application that can run on a smartphone to respond to the RFID reader when it is queried. We need a corresponding application running in either the network attached door lock or in the cloud to query the smartphone via RFID. Given the RFID communication between the reader and the smartphone an application running in either the network attached door lock or in the cloud will determine whether the door should be unlocked or not.
While we have some basic experience with microcontrollers and some knowledge of computer communication systems, we did not yet have any knowledge of RFID technology. Combining these different technologies in one project should take our knowledge to the next level. Our first step in doing this is to connect a microcontroller to the Internet, and then connect a RFID reader to this microcontroller. Note that one of the other areas that we want to explore is the use of Power over Ethernet (PoE) technology, so that we do not need a separate connection from our microcontroller to the building’s power mains.
1.6 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the thesis is to design a wireless door security system usingradio frequency identification reader and microcontroller. The system also have an engine monitor which deactivates the engine after five minutes of driver inactivity. To design this, graphical user interface (GUI) is designed for drivers to communicate with the overall system. To achieve the stated objective, the following specific objectives are laid out.
1.4 OBJECTIVESOF THE STUDY
i. Ensure accurate data transfer between RFID reader and Personal computer (PC):
The data which is read by RFID reader when the card is tapped on the RFID reader is send to the PC through serial transmission. To access this data a database is designed on the PC using Java.
ii. Ensure accurate data transfer from PC to ATMEGA32 microcontroller for Door Access.
The RFID Card number which is tracked by the RFID reader is now compared with the data present in the database. If the Card number is present in the database then the PC will send a signal to the ATMEGA through the Java programming for Door Access.
iii. Proper microcontroller security:
RFID reader will be placed in the car door and the microcontroller will be placed inside the car where it cannot be modified or access by someone outside the car. The microcontroller will be connected to a server via a Power over Ethernet (PoE) capable switch. This network connection provides power to the microcontroller, RFID reader, and electric strike plate (or motor to turn the latch).
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project work is narrowed to one car only. The system will be managed through an app where the administrator of the lock can create electronic keys and manage the lock. Note that these keys can be designed to work only during a specific time or even a one-time-only key.
1.9 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The following are some factors, which acted as an impeachment or constraints to the progress of the project work;
a. Lack of source codes: This was the main limitation experience during the course of this research. Arduino source codes required to create connection between the radio reader and the sender was difficult to obtain. This made me use the available but less preferred codes for the implementation.
b. Lack of Documented materials: Also, it was difficult to start the project initially because reference materials at my disposal are limited.
c. Financial constraint: This is another factor that limited me in carrying out this project effectively. This project involves hardware and they are costly to obtain.
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This thesis is divided into five chapters.
· Chapter 1 gives an overview of what the project is about. It will give the reader basic background material so that the reader can understand the concepts that will be subsequently used in this project.
· Chapter 2 will also summarize some of the related work relevant to this project.
· Chapter 3 covers the methods used in the project to achieve our goals which contains a range of both software and hardware tools.
· Described in chapter 4 is how we tested our prototype to see if it fulfilled our purposes with the project. Since we did not accomplish all of our goals,
· Chapter 5 reviews our conclusion and describes what we have left undone in addition to suggesting what could be done in future work to build upon this project.
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